Zhao Zichen’s Hope for China: Christianity and Communism United Together

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The year is 1949. The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) had just succeeded in removing the Guómínd?ng from China. At this time, Zhao Zichen was hopeful toward the future of China and enthusiastic that Christianity and Communism could blend together. In his article “Red Peiping After Six Months,” Zhao expresses enthusiasm for the success of the CCP and argues that the Chinese people “do not see any incompatibility between Marxist-Leninist thought and Christian beliefs.” He goes on to say that “[a] Christian Communist is not an impossibility among us, just as the biblical Christianity of the early Christian era and Greek philosophy… were not an impossibility in their strange union.”1

Zhao’s view was certainly a minority opinion among Christians in China during that time. Most Chinese Christians, in fact, had become loyal to the Guómínd?ng government, in large part because its leader, Chiang Kai-shek, was a baptized Christian. However, even among those few Chinese Christian leaders who sided with the CCP, most of them saw the CCP as the lesser of two evils. Zhao was among a small few were openly enthusiastic of a Communist victory in China.2

So, why did Zhao believe the CCP would be good for China when most Christians believed otherwise? This paper will attempt to respond to this question by demonstrating that Zhao’s enthusiasm for the CCP was likely directly tied to his belief that Christianity and Chinese Communism shared common goals for China. This will be demonstrated by examining Zhao Zichen’s vision for China as expressed in three of his articles - “Cóng zh?ngguó wénhuà shu? dào j?d?jiào” (“The Christian Faith Against China’s Cultural Background”), written in 1946, “J?d?jiào de lúnl?” (“Christian Ethics”), written in 1948, and “Red Peiping after Six Months," written in 1949 – and comparing his vision to the vision expressed in several primary sources from the CCP during this era.3 I will demonstrate that Zhao and the CCP express commonality in five main areas with one key difference.

First Area of Commonality: Restoration of Harmony

One of the strongest desires Zhao had for China’s future was to restore harmony among its people. Zhao’s vision of harmony was not only the end of conflict but life that flowed smoothly with order, value and meaning. By the mid-1940s, Zhao had witnessed decades of turbulence within China. This included the fall of the Qing dynasty, power struggles that occurred in the aftermath, violence committed as a result of the New Culture Movement, and the occupation of Japan. Zhao described a country that desired to “flow violently like black lacquer;” a country where ethics had collapsed and life had no foundation.4 He believed that the Chinese people had become like villains “rejoicing in fighting” with an aftermath of “continual begging… from north to south.”5

Zhao desperately wanted China to be restored to an orderly and peaceful nation. In his article “Christian Ethics,” Zhao spoke at length about restoring harmony in China, rebuilding the foundation of life, and giving life value and meaning.6 He believed that “the desires of society…rule its heart.” Further, because China’s current desires were filled with violence, he believed that if China continued on its current path, “ruin will follow.”7 FFor Zhao, “the foundation of all the country's problems [was] a moral problem” and that Christianity was the key to bring about “peace and harmony.”8 Zhao saw a harmonious society as a critical outcome for China.

Similarly, the CCP also saw harmony as a critical component of China’s future. Liu Shaoqi, one of the senior leaders of the CCP, promoted a Communist China because he believed that Communism would lead to a “spirit of mutual assistance and mutual love.” 9 Rules and discipline were given by the CCP as a means to instill a sense of harmony among its members. All members were “to devote themselves heart, body, and soul to the mission of the Party.”10 Mao Zedong criticized the Party for not being disciplined enough and called for Party members to “all march in step,” thereby, establishing harmony.11

Given that a harmonious society was the ultimate aim of Confucianism,12 and Confucian principles dominated Chinese society for more than two millennia,13 it is not surprising that restoring harmony would be a high priority for both Zhao and the CCP. Influenced by the principles promoted in their past, harmony was likely a high priority for many Chinese people at the time. Even Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Guómínd?ng, expressed his desire to restore harmony within China at the end of the war with Japan.14 Therefore, while both Zhao and the CCP desperately wanted harmony within China, this one similarity alone does not explain Zhao’s support for the CCP over the Guómínd?ng.

Second Area of Commonality: Moral Cultivation

As previously mentioned, Zhao believed that the path to restoring harmony lay in establishing a moral society. For Zhao, ethics and morality were used interchangeably. He says, “Ethics is the reason people get along… Therefore,… [e]thics cannot be separate from society.”15 He believed that “virtue transforms government” and people.16 For Zhao, it was an ethical structure that would provide order and transform China.

Zhao’s version of ethics meant a structure that promoted benevolence, justice, and right and wrong.17 It was a structure that promoted equality and mutual respect. It was a structure based upon how he understood Christianity. He says, “Christianity takes charge of upright friendships, holding together equality, advocating peace and harmony, assisting rule by law, and developing a public spirit that abides by the law.”18 He calls Christian ethics “the societal foundation of life.”19 Zhao’s version of Christian ethics meant that all people experienced love, justice, order, and harmony. He saw “all people as God’s children” and, therefore, all needed to be treated with love and respect.20

Similarly, the CCP saw moral cultivation of its members as one of its main goals.21 Conrad Brandt and Benjamin Schwartz claim that it was the mission of the CCP to redeem humanity.22 Party members were expected to serve as moral models for the rest of society and it was through rules and order that the Party intended to cultivate this moral model.23 The CCP valued “’the spirit of altruism, enthusiasm, service and hard work’” and deplored “’selfishness, laziness, corruption and vanity.’”24 Liu Shaoqi promoted a society that contained “no oppressed and exploited people, no darkness, ignorance, backwardness.” Similar to Zhao, he promoted a society full of “mutual assistance and mutual love.”25

While the CCP did not promote Christianity, both the CCP and Zhao promoted ethics based upon mutual love, humility, justice, and respect. In contrast, the Guómínd?ng emphasized discipline and structure more than any other value.26 For example, Chiang Kai-shek redefined traditional Confucian values to emphasize discipline and structure. Li (or ritual) became a “regulated attitude” that conforms to “law, rule and discipline,” yi (or righteousness) became “right conduct” in accordance with “natural law, social rule, and national discipline,” lian (or honesty) became “clear discrimination” of right and wrong, and chi (or honor) became “real self-consciousness” of when one is not in accordance with the other three values.27 For Zhao’s and the CCP, the values of love, humility and self sacrifice were just as important, if not more important than discipline and structure.

Third Area of Commonality: Political and Economic Equality

Zhao’s and the CCP’s emphasis on mutual love and respect carried forward in their thoughts on democracy. In the traditional Chinese society, a hierarchical structure of father above son, ruler above subject, husband above wife, and elder above brother was promoted.28 Civil service appointments based upon civil service exams created a system that favored intellectuals and elites. 29 Those who had the means and opportunity to master the civil service exams enjoyed a greater social status and economic opportunities, whereas, workers and peasants were considered to have little value.30

Zhao saw this structure as offensive to humanity and offensive to God. He believed that God valued all people. He says, “Therefore, a person is the purpose, not a tool” to be used as a chess piece or a slave. He says, if a person treats another as a tool, then that person “has broken the moral law, offended humanity, offended God, and has committed the most important, biggest sin.” Zhao believed that because people are made in the image of God, they possessed God’s sacredness and “[s]ince a person's sacredness cannot be violated, it is naturally unsuitable to regard them as a tool.”31 Further, Zhao promoted economic and political democracy that gave all people a voice and opportunity. For Zhao, the common people needed to be equal members of society. 32

Similarly, the CCP sought a future China where workers and peasants received the respect they deserved. Speaking in regard to intellectuals, Mao Zedong says, “[o]ne truth that they should realize is that a great many so-called intellectuals are actually exceedingly unlearned, and that the knowledge of the workers and the peasants is sometimes greater than theirs.”33 Chen Yun called “[t]he poor peasants… the most powerful ally of the proletariat in the further progress of the revolution.”34 Likewise, Mao promoted a system of “universal and equal suffrage, irrespective of sex, creed, property, or education.” 35

This strikingly similar stance on a political and economic equality is one of the strongest areas where both Zhao and the CCP separate themselves from the Guómínd?ng. While the Guómínd?ng also promoted democracy as one of its Three People’s Principles,36 it still promoted a very dictatorial system of party leadership. The party believed that “national unity must take priority over the extension of political freedom.”37 In contrast, Zhao praises the CCP for being “wise enough to enlist the wholehearted support of scholars, students, people of different democratic interests, and the ordinary people on their side.” 38 The CCP’s promotion of equality is likely one of the greatest reasons for Zhao’s support of the CCP.

Fourth Area of Commonality: Nationalism

Both Zhao and the CCP also expressed strong nationalistic tendencies. After seeing years of both physical and economic occupation from foreign powers, both grew to despise foreign influence in China. Zhao saw the “intercourse” between world culture and China’s culture leading to ruin. 39 As he expresses it, “China gets ravaged.” He pleads to “[m]ake [China] give up the culture of the place of the conquers, place of the absorbers, place of those who confuse.”40 Zhao not only wanted foreign culture removed from China, but foreign dominated theology as well. As Winfried Gluer says, “bold rejection of elements of Western theology was for him no more than a first step in freeing the Chinese church from foreign bondage.” Zhao wanted to express the gospel “positively and authentically in a Chinese context,” using Chinese terms and concepts in place of Western ones.41

SSimilarly, the CCP challenged people to resist materialism and dialectic method influenced by the West. It sought to “’[p]unish the past to warn the future’…like a doctor in curing a disease.”42 Mao Zedong tells the Party’s members to “call for the resistance against [western influenced materialism, dialectic method and dogmatism] as [done] against Japanese goods.”43 The CCP wanted China to divorce itself from “the control of the old [foreign] formalism and old [foreign] dogmatism.” It saw this foreign influence as poison that must be exterminated.44

While both Zhao and the CCP had strong nationalistic views, nationalism was one of the main themes of the New Culture Movement and, therefore, was widespread in China.45 Given the prevalence of nationalism, it is no surprise that nationalism was emphasized by both Zhao and the CCP. Nationalism was also promoted by the Guómínd?ng. However, despite its promotion, the Guómínd?ng’s leader, Chiang Kai-shek, was perceived as continuing to promote Western ideals in China. 46 Given that Zhao believed that China’s “intercourse” (as he calls it) with world culture would lead to ruin, we can infer that he likely viewed Chiang’s ties to Westernization as traitorous and believed the CCP held the correct view on foreign influence.

Last Area of Commonality: Rejection of Traditional Chinese Religions

TThe value of religion is one area where Zhao and the CCP both agree and disagree. Similar to the CCP, Zhao rejected traditional Chinese religions. He calls Daoism and Confucianism “too limited,… basic and not consolidated for common people's feeling of life.”47 He calls Buddhism nothing more than “fake emptiness.”48 Zhao believed that Confucianism was too reliant upon one’s own strength. He thought that to believe one could become a moral person through one’s own strength was arrogant.49 Further, Zhao also believed that the traditional Confucian education system “made the scholar corrupt; made the scholar join together with the corrupt flow of [Confucian based] governments.” 50

While Zhao believed that traditional Chinese religions failed, he still believed that Christianity was necessary for China. He says that “a mistake is to eliminate to religion…Eliminate faith, and there will be nothing to substitute faith. Destruction [will come] afterwards.”51 He believed that all problems stemmed from people needing to be transformed by God. He says, “[a] person's problem is that they must have something transcending [their] nature. A solution for transcending a person comes from God. In everything this is so.”52 He believed that “[o]nly Christianity contains a real boundary that may save and pull the culture out from collapse with success.”53

The CCP, on the other hand, was against all forms of religion. Mao Zedong called religious dogma “less useful than excrement.”54 He believed that the theocratic authority that comes from religion was one of the “four great cords” of oppression and needed to be overthrown.55

While the CCP rejected all religion, most of the CCP’s anti-religious stance was focused on Confucianism. Mao equated Confucianism to a slave ideology and declared that any culture containing such ideology “must be swept away.”56 Liu Shaoqi claimed that Confucian teachings oppressed and exploited people while others were allowed to manipulate the system to get better jobs and more money. Referring to Confucian scholars, Liu says, “apart from utilizing them for window-dressing purposes, their objects were (1) to make use of these teachings for the purpose of hoodwinking and suppressing the culturally backward people; (2) to attempt thereby to secure better government jobs, make money and achieve fame, and reflect credit on their parents.”57 Therefore, despite their disagreement over all religion, the CCP and Zhao both agreed that traditional Chinese religions did not provide much value.

It may seem that Zhao’s support for Christianity would have bound him to the Guómínd?ng, whose leader was a baptized Christian.58 However, the Guómínd?ng continued to promote Confucianism, which Zhao rejected.59 At the same time the Guómínd?ng failed to adhere to the Confucian virtues it promoted and was known for its corrupt behavior.60 It is likely that Zhao saw the Guómínd?ng’s promotion of Confucianism as arrogant reliance upon one’s self and the Guómínd?ng’s corrupt behavior as confirmation of the failure of such reliance. Zhao, in fact, calls Chiang Kai-shek a Judas of the Christian faith.61

Conclusion

The vision that both Zhao and the CCP promoted for China was one of harmony, moral cultivation based upon mutual love and respect for ALL people. Both wanted foreign culture removed from China and rejected traditional Chinese religions. However, despite the commonalities between their visions, one key difference between Zhao and the CCP remained. Where the CCP rejected all religion, Zhao saw Christianity as the key to China’s transformation.

SoSo, how was Zhao able to overlook this key difference and believe that Christianity and Communism could blend together? Zhao’s hope lay in the Christian Church in China. Referring to the Church after the Communists succeeded in removing the Guómínd?ng, he says, “the first and most fundamental task before the church now is its own reconversion and revitalization. It should first of all aspire, to be a true Church of God, a fellowship of love and suffering wherein each loves all and serves all.” Zhao believed that “the Chinese people are not so entirely short of memory as to be oblivious of [the Christian Church’s] contributions to culture, social uplift and political revolutions.”62 For Zhao, the CCP needed to be reminded of how the Christian Church had contributed to China in the past by seeing a current version of the Church that represented the values both he and the CCP promoted.

Zhao believed that Christianity and Chinese Communism both shared common goals for China and promoted similar values. For Zhao, the key to their compatibility was the transformative power of Christianity that comes from God and represented by the Christian Church. Just as he believed that “virtue transforms government,”63 Zhao believed that Christianity’s transformative power would become self-evident to the CCP once they became familiar with it. After all, Christianity had been a minority religion in China and largely associated with the West.64 It is unlikely that the CCP knew much about the Christianity that Zhao promoted.

It may be easy to think of Zhao’s view of the CCP as naïve given that the CCP went on to implement policies aimed at the eradicating all religion, including Christianity.65 However, in 1949, Zhao didn’t have much more than the ideology promoted by the CCP upon which he could base his evaluation. Further, given the chaos that existed in China during the first half of the twentieth century, the Christianity Zhao promoted didn’t have much of a chance to take shape. In hindsight, we may judge Zhao’s view as naïve, but, at this particular time in history, Zhao saw opportunity – an opportunity for Christianity and Communism to blend together and an opportunity for the two to work together to pull China “out from collapse.”



  • Bibliography

    • Bays, Daniel H. A New History of Christianity in China. Blackwell Guides to Global Christianity. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
    • Brandt, Conrad, Benjamin Isadore Schwartz, and John King Fairbank. A Documentary History of Chinese Communism. Russian Research Center Studies. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952.
    • Chao, T. C. "Red Peiping after Six Months." The Christian Century, no. Sept 14 (1949): 1066-68.
    • Chen, Yun. "How to Be a Communist Party Member." In A Documentary History of Chinese Communism, edited by Conrad Brandt, Benjamin Isadore Schwartz and John King Fairbank. 322-36. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952.
    • Chiang, Kai-shek. "China's Destiny." In Introduction to Asian Civilizations, edited by William Theodore De Bary, Richard John Lufrano, Irene Bloom, Wing-tsit Chan and Joseph Adler. 344-47. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
    • ———. "Essentials of the New Life Movement." In Introduction to Asian Civilizations, edited by William Theodore De Bary, Richard John Lufrano, Irene Bloom, Wing-tsit Chan and Joseph Adler. 341-44. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
    • De Bary, William Theodore, Richard John Lufrano, Irene Bloom, Wing-tsit Chan, and Joseph Adler. Sources of Chinese Tradition. Introduction to Asian Civilizations. 2nd ed. Vol. 2, New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
    • Glüer, Winfried. "The Legacy of T.C. Chao." International Bulletin of Missionary Research, no. October (October 1, 1982 1982): 165-69.
    • Ivanhoe, P. J. Confucian Moral Self Cultivation. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub., 2000.
    • Liu, Shaoqi. "How to Be a Good Communist." In Introduction to Asian Civilizations, edited by William Theodore De Bary, Richard John Lufrano, Irene Bloom, Wing-tsit Chan and Joseph Adler. 427-32. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
    • Mao, Zedong. "Correcting Unorthodox Tendencies in Learning, the Party, and Literature and Art." In A Documentary History of Chinese Communism, edited by Conrad Brandt, Benjamin Isadore Schwartz and John King Fairbank. 375-92. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952.
    • ———. "On New Democracy." In Introduction to Asian Civilizations, edited by William Theodore De Bary, Richard John Lufrano, Irene Bloom, Wing-tsit Chan and Joseph Adler. 418-23. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
    • ———. "Opposing Party Formalism." In A Documentary History of Chinese Communism, edited by Conrad Brandt, Benjamin Isadore Schwartz and John King Fairbank. 392-407. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952.
    • ———. "Report on an Investigation of the Hunan Peasant Movement." In Introduction to Asian Civilizations, edited by William Theodore De Bary, Richard John Lufrano, Irene Bloom, Wing-tsit Chan and Joseph Adler. 406-11. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
    • Poceski, Mario. Introducing Chinese Religions. World Religions Series. London ; New York: Routledge, 2009.
    • ???, (Zhao Zichen). "?????? (Christian Ethics)." In ?????, ??? (Works of Zhao Zichen, Vol 2). 493-512. Beijing: ?????, 2004.
    • ———. "?????????? (the Christian Faith against China's Cultural Background)." In ?????, ??? (Works of Zhao Zichen, Vol 2). 393-410. Beijing: ?????, 2004.


  • Footnotes

    • 1 T. C. Chao, "Red Peiping After Six Months," The Christian Century, no. Sept 14 (1949): 1066-67.
    • 2 Among those who were openly enthusiastic toward the CCP were Y.T. Wu and Kiang Wenhan, in addition to Zhao Zichen. Daniel H. Bays, A new history of Christianity in China, Blackwell guides to global Christianity (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012). 149.
    • 3 All quotes from Zhao Zichen’s “Cong Zhong Guo Wen Hua Shuo Dao Ji Du Jiao” (“The Christian Faith Against China’s Cultural Background”) and “Ji Du Jiao de Lun Li” (“Christian Ethics”) have been translated into English by the author of this study.
    • 4 (Zhao Zichen) ???, "?????? (Christian Ethics)," in ?????, ??? (Works of Zhao Zichen, Vol 2) (Beijing: ?????, 2004), 495.
    • 5 (Zhao Zichen) ???, "?????????? (The Christian Faith Against China's Cultural Background)," in ?????, ??? (Works of Zhao Zichen, Vol 2) (Beijing: ?????, 2004), 396.
    • 6 Examples of Zhao talking about restoring harmony, rebuilding the foundation of life, and giving life value and meaning include: “Ethics is the reason people get along…a person will equally get along with God, and should be in harmony with God as well as God's desires. Everybody gets along and human relations are strong. Therefore,… [e]thics cannot be separate from society; a person together with God are harmonious. They have each other's respect.” (???, "?????? (Christian Ethics)," 503.); “Christianity takes charge of upright friendships, holding together equality, advocating peace and harmony, assisting rule by law, developing a public spirit that abides by the law.”( ibid., 508.) “We think it is sensible to explore deeply the future's dangerous summit and absolutely realize the foundation of all the country's problems is a moral problem. Therefore this paper will speak about ethics.”(ibid., 495-96.) “In the center of Christian ethics is the concept of a person. If you have this concept of a person, then you have Christian ethics… A person is a part of God's family, brothers and sisters to each other. Its sacred personality cannot be violated. Therefore, a person is the purpose, not the tool; May serve each other's needs, volunteer to be each other's tools, but the time that they serve as each other's tools they are still the purpose on earth…. A person desires equality. A person has freedom. A person desires mutual love and mutual peace… An eye is not equal to an ear. A hand is not equal to a foot. But, an eye and an ear, and a hand and a foot, each has its use, each has its value.” (ibid., 502-03.)
    • 7 ???, "?????????? (The Christian Faith Against China's Cultural Background)," 395-96.
    • 8 ???, "?????? (Christian Ethics)," 496, 508.
    • 9 Shaoqi Liu, "How to Be a Good Communist," in Introduction to Asian civilizations, ed. William Theodore De Bary, et al. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 430.
    • 10 Yun Chen, "How to Be a Communist Party Member," in A Documentary History of Chinese Communism, ed. Conrad Brandt, Benjamin Isadore Schwartz, and John King Fairbank (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952), 322.
    • 11 Zedong Mao, "Correcting Unorthodox Tendencies in Learning, the Party, and Literature and Art," in A Documentary History of Chinese Communism, ed. Conrad Brandt, Benjamin Isadore Schwartz, and John King Fairbank (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952), 376.
    • 12 P. J. Ivanhoe, Confucian moral self cultivation, 2nd ed. (Indianapolis: Hackett Pub., 2000). 5.
    • 13 Mario Poceski, Introducing Chinese religions, World religions series (London ; New York: Routledge, 2009). 34.
    • 14Kai-shek Chiang, "China's Destiny," in Introduction to Asian civilizations, ed. William Theodore De Bary, et al. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 344-45. William Theodore De Bary et al., Sources of Chinese tradition, 2nd ed., vol. 2, Introduction to Asian civilizations (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000). 326.
    • 15 ???, "?????? (Christian Ethics)," 503.
    • 16 ???, "?????????? (The Christian Faith Against China's Cultural Background)," 398.
    • 17 ???, "?????? (Christian Ethics)," 498, 500.
    • 18 Ibid., 508.
    • 19 Ibid., 496.
    • 20 Ibid., 502.
    • 21 Liu, "How to Be a Good Communist," 428.
    • 22 Conrad Brandt, Benjamin Isadore Schwartz, and John King Fairbank, A Documentary History of Chinese Communism, Russian Research Center studies (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952). 319.
    • 23 Chen, "How to Be a Communist Party Member," 333.
    • 24 Ibid., 334.
    • 25 Liu, "How to Be a Good Communist," 430.
    • 26 De Bary et al., Sources of Chinese tradition, 2: 338-39.
    • 27 Chiang, "Essentials of the New Life Movement," 342-43.
    • 28 Poceski, Introducing Chinese religions: 45.
    • 29 Ibid., 47.
    • 30 Ibid., 204-05.
    • 31 ???, "?????? (Christian Ethics)," 502.
    • 32 ???, "?????????? (The Christian Faith Against China's Cultural Background)," 401.
    • 33 Mao, "Correcting Unorthodox Tendencies in Learning, the Party, and Literature and Art," 380.
    • 34 Chen, "How to Be a Communist Party Member," 325.
    • 35 Zedong Mao, "On New Democracy," in Introduction to Asian civilizations, ed. William Theodore De Bary, et al. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 420-21.
    • 36 The Three People’s Principles are: nationalism, democracy, and the people’s livelihood. De Bary et al., Sources of Chinese tradition, 2: 340.
    • 37 Ibid., 331, 40.
    • 38 Chao, "Red Peiping After Six Months," 1066.
    • 39 ???, "?????????? (The Christian Faith Against China's Cultural Background)," 395.
    • 40 Ibid., 400.
    • 41 Winfried Glüer, "The Legacy of T.C. Chao," International Bulletin of Missionary Research, no. October (1982): 168.
    • 42 Mao, "Correcting Unorthodox Tendencies in Learning, the Party, and Literature and Art," 391-92.
    • 43 Ibid., 391.
    • 44 Mao, "Opposing Party Formalism," 394-95.
    • 45 Bays, A new history of Christianity in China: 107.
    • 46 De Bary et al., Sources of Chinese tradition, 2: 340.
    • 47 ???, "?????????? (The Christian Faith Against China's Cultural Background)," 399.
    • 48 ???, "?????? (Christian Ethics)," 497.
    • 49 Ibid., 501.
    • 50 ???, "?????????? (The Christian Faith Against China's Cultural Background)," 398.
    • 51 Ibid., 400.
    • 52 ???, "?????? (Christian Ethics)," 499.
    • 53 Ibid., 496.
    • 54 Mao, "Correcting Unorthodox Tendencies in Learning, the Party, and Literature and Art," 385.
    • 55 The other cords of oppression include political authority, clan authority and the authority of the husband. Mao, "Report on an Investigation of the Hunan Peasant Movement," 410.
    • 56 Mao, "On New Democracy," 421.
    • 57 Liu, "How to Be a Good Communist," 429-30.
    • 58 Bays, A new history of Christianity in China: 149.
    • 59 De Bary et al., Sources of Chinese tradition, 2: 338. An example of this can be seen in Chiang Kai-shek’s claim that the “deterioration of national morality” was due to neglecting China’s ancient ethical teachings and philosophies, which were based upon Confucianism. The Three Principles Chiang promoted was meant to restore these ancient Confucian teachings. Chiang, "China's Destiny," 345-47.
    • 60 Bays, A new history of Christianity in China: 149.
    • 61 Chao, "Red Peiping After Six Months," 1067.
    • 62 Ibid.
    • 63 ???, "?????????? (The Christian Faith Against China's Cultural Background)," 398.
    • 64 Bays, A new history of Christianity in China: 108.
    • 65 This was particularly true during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). Ibid., 159.

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By Lisa Woicik / Pacific Northwest Regional AAR/SBL/ASOR Conference / May, 2012

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